WAEC 2018 PRACTICAL BIOLOGY QUESTION and ANSWER


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Specimen A – Mosquito Larva
Specimen B – Maggot
Specimen C – Gill of a fish
Specimen D – Mammalian Lung
Specimen E – Dicotyledonous Leaf
Specimen F – Membranous wing of a cockroach.

Questions
1a. Identify specimen A and B
b. What is the habitat(s) of specimen A and B?
c. State four adaptive features each of specimens A and B
d. Name the respiratory structure in specimen A and B
e. At what stage of development is specimen A and B?
f. Into what stage will specimen A and B develop?
g. Name then organism from which specimen A and B developed
h. Name the type of food on which specimen A and B feed
i. How long does it takes for specimen A and B to develop into the next stage?
j. State the type of metamorphosis common to specimen A and B
k. Draw a well labelled diagram [10- 12cm long] of specimen A and B

Answers
1a. Specimen A is Culex Mosquito Larva
Specimen B is Maggot
b. Specimen A – stagnant water| water in a container| ponds| lakes| puddles| pools| still water.
Specimen B – decayed substances, especially proteinous foods rotten fruits| dead and decayed organic matter proteinous juice e.g. Meat or fish juice.

c. Features in specimen A
- Presence of siphon for breathing
- Presence of mouth brush for sweeping small organisms in water into the mouth.
- Presence of jointed body
- Presence of antenna (pair) for feeling
Features in specimen B
- Presence of spiracles for gaseous exchange
- Presence of jointed body
- Presence of anus for excreting wastes

- Presence of spines on body for protection
d. The respiratory structure in specimen A is the Hollowed breathing tube called Siphon
The respiratory structure in specimen B is the Spiracles and the moist Body Surface.

e. Larva stage of development (second stage)
f. Pupa stage of development (third stage)
g. Specimen A developed from Culex mosquito
Specimen B developed from Housefly
h. Specimen A feed on bacteria from the water
Specimen B feed on proteinous juice| decayed materials.
i. Specimen A takes 2-14 days to develop into the next stage
Specimen B takes 3-8 days to develop into the next stage
j. complete metamorphosis
k.

Questions
2a. Identify specimen C and D
b. give the function of each of specimen C and D
c. Give the general characteristics of specimen C and D
d. Give the organism(s) name(s) from which specimen C and D are obtained and name the habitat to which each belong.
e. Give any other two functions of specimen C and D apart from the general function.
f. Draw a well labelled diagram of specimen C and state the function of each of the labelled part.
g. Give the observable differences between specimen C and D

Answers
2a. specimen C is the gill of a fish Pisces
Specimen D is piece of mammalian lung Terrestrial mammals
b. the function of specimen C in the organism is for gaseous exchange and similar in function to specimen D
Specimen C is from aquatic while D from terrestrial habitats
c. characteristics of specimen C and D which adapt them to their functions.
I. They are highly vascularized or have a lot of blood vessels
II. They have thin surfaces
III. They are soft and moist
IV. They have irregular surfaces to create large surface area.
d. Specimen C is obtained from fishes – aquatic habitat

Specimen D is obtained from mammals – terrestrial habitat
e. Apart from gaseous exchange, specimen c performs the function
- sieving away particles in the water before passing it out through the operculum of fishes
- contains dissolve blood particles for circulation

Specimen D performs the function of
- receiving deoxygenated blood from the pulmonary artery
- helping in blood circulation
f.
g. Observable differences between specimen C and D

Specimen C Specimen D
Presence of gill arch Presence of trachea
Presence of filaments Presence of alveoli
Presence of raker Presence of bronchioles
Presence of Lamella Presence of bronchi
The filaments are arranged in a line The alveoli are scattered on the lung

Questions
3a. Identify specimen E and F
b. Name a structure similar in function to specimen C and D in specimen e
c. Give the observable similarities between specimen E and F
d. Give the observable differences between specimen E and F
e. Give the adaptive features each of specimen E and F
f. Give the functions of each of specimen E and F to the organisms from which they are obtained.
g. What type of leaf is specimen E?
Answers
3a. specimen E is a dicotyledonous leaf
Specimen F is a membranous wing of a cockroach
b. The stomach
c. they are both waterproof
They both contains cuticle
d. observable differences

Specimen E Specimen F
Green in colour Brown/ dark in colour
Obtained from a plant Obtained from an animal
Contains mid-rib Contains tiny vein-like network
Contains pointed apex Made up of point of attachment to the thorax segment
e. specimen E – possession of green pigment for photosynthesis
– possession of stomach for gaseous exchange
– possession of phloem and xylum for translocation of food and conduction of water respectively
– possession of petiole for attachment to the pareolant

specimen F – possession of thin layer for flight
– possession of waterproof surface for repelling water
– possession of netted-vein-like surface to encourage easy flight
– possession of membranous surface for easy locomotion
f. Specimen E performs the functions of;
– photosynthesis
– conduction of water
– translocation of food
– gaseous exchange
Specimen F performs the functions of;
– flight
– Movement and balance for cockroach
– Protection for cockroach
g. Specimen E is a simple leaf with reticulate (net) venation.

Questions
4a. Identify specimen K, L and M
b. state the observable differences and similarities between specimen K and M
c. what type of flower is specimen K and M
d. name the type of placentation in specimen K and M

e. state the source of nutrient present in specimen K and L and the mineral elements present.

f. what is the economic importance os specimen L?

g. what is the symmetry of specimen K and M?
h. what type of flower in present in specimen L?

i. is specimen K, L and M flowers wind pollinated in insect pollinated flower? Give reasons

j. using the scalpel/blade provided, cut through specimen K and M longitudinally, dividing it into two equal half, make a labelled drawing of 8cm-10cm long of one half.

k. examine specimen K and M carefully, copy and complete the table below;
Specimen Name of floral parts Number of floral parts Colour of floral part
K Sepal
Petal
Filament
Stigma
M Sepal
Petal
Filament
stigma
l. carefully detach the other petals except the special petals. Make a well large labelled drawing (10-12cm long) of the remaining floral parts.

Answers
4a. identify specimen K,L and M
Specimen K is Pride of Barbados/ caesalpinia pulcherima
Specimen L is elephant grass with flower
Specimen M is hibiscus flower

b. observable differences between K and M
Specimen K Specimen M
Possession of long filament Possession of short filament
It is an inflorescence It is a single stalk flower
Possession of one stigma Possession of five stigmas
Observable similarities between K and M
– Both contains ovary/ ovaries
– Both are made up of sepals and petals
– Both are made up of stigma and style
– Both are made up of anther and filament
c. specimen K and M are both irregular, poly sepalous, polypetals, entomorphilus flower.
d. marginal placentation
e. protein – nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, phosphorus, carbon & sulphur
f. economic importance of specimen
– Serve as source of feed for livestocks
– Rich in proteins
– Can be used to produce compost manure
– Can be used to produce hays for feeding livestocks.

g. specimen K and M are irregular flowers
h. specimen L is made up of inconspicuous, anemorphilus – wind pollinated flower. Flower endosed in a bracts to form a spikelets.
i. specimen K is insect pollinated – Entomorphilus

Specimen L is wind pollinated – anemorphilus
Specimen M is insect pollinated – enotomorphilus
Reasons – specimen K and M are brightly coloured, conspicuous and contain nectar with sticky while specimen L is inconspicuous flower without nectar.
j.
Specimen K and M (longitudinal section) through each of the specimen
The magnification= object size
Image size
It should be written as <mg> and the ratio of the object to the image size should be written in fraction/ whole number. E.g. (mg×1/2)
k.

Specimen Name of floral parts Number of floral parts Colour of floral parts
k Sepal 5 Green on the under sickle red/yellow on the upper sickle
Petal 5 Red/yellow/orange/cream
Filament 10 Red/pink/milk colour
Stigma 1 Yellow/red/pink
M Sepal 5 Green
Petal 5 Red
Filament 10 Red
Stigma 5 Red/cream
L.

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