2018 WAEC GCE BIOLOGY ESSAY & OBJECTIVE ANSWER NOW AVAILABLE.

2018 WAEC GCE BIOLOGY ESSAY & OBJECTIVE ANSWER NOW AVAILABLE.




Biology Theory Answer
1. Stems have four main functions which are: Support for and the elevation of leaves, flowers and fruits. The stems keep the leaves in the light and provide a place for the plant to keep its flowers and fruits. Transport of fluids between the roots and the shoots in the xylem and phloem.


Chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight.
In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight.


1. Stems have four main functions which are: Support for and the elevation of leaves, flowers and fruits. The stems keep the leaves in the light and provide a place for the plant to keep its flowers and fruits. Transport of fluids between the roots and the shoots in the xylem and phloem.


Chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight.
Best dietary sources

Oats, barley, oat bran, psyllium husk
Legumes – peas, beans, lentils
Fruits such as apple, orange and pear
Carrots


Brown rice, whole wheat, wheat bran
Seeds and nuts
Many kinds of vegetables including green leafy vegetables,


5a. Osmoregulation

Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors, to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis.


The higher the osmotic pressure of a solution, the more water tends to move into it. Pressure must be exerted on the hypertonic side of a selectively permeable membrane to prevent diffusion of water by osmosis from the side containing pure water.


Biotechnology
the exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes, especially the genetic manipulation of microorganisms for the production of antibiotics, hormones, etc.

Macro nutrients
Macronutrients are those nutrients required in large amounts that provide the energy needed to maintain body functions and carry out the activities of daily life.

*Micro nutrients
Micronutrients are essential for plant growth and play an important role in balanced crop nutrition. They include boron(B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and chloride (Cl).

Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll is an extremely importantbiomolecule, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorb energy from light. Chlorophyll absorbs light most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, followed by the red portion.

Independent assortment
law of independent assortment, states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes. This means that traits are transmitted to offspring independently of one another. ... Mendel concluded that traits .


effects of food spoilage on population
.spread of diseases
.economic hardship
.high death rate on population
.food shortage
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features of moveable joints
ends of bones covered with articular cartilage
-ends bound by capsules of ligaments
-have joint cavity filled with lubricating fluid called synovial fluid secreted by synovial membrane
-they are called synovial joints.

Functions of mammalian skeleton**

-Support
The skeleton provides the framework which supports the body and maintains its shape.

- Movement
The joints between bones allow movement, some allowing more than others. Movement is powered by skeletal muscles. Muscles, bones and joints allow movement, all coordinated by the nervous system.

- Protection
The skeleton helps to protect the vital organs from being damaged. Ribcage, sternum and spine protect the lungs, heart and major blood vessels; the skull protects the brain; the vertebrae protect the spinal cord.

- Blood cell production
The skeleton is the site of haematopoiesis, the development of blood cells which occurs in the bone marrow.

- Storage
Bone can store many minerals. The bone matrix can store calcium and is used in calcium metabolism. Bone marrow can store iron in ferritin and is involved in iron metabolism.

- Attachment
The skeleton provides many points of attachment fro muscles and tendons. The bones also attach to hold the body together (see support).

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